Biochemical characterization of Mustard Oil (Brassica campestrisL.) with special reference toits fatty acid composition

Author(s): Altaf Khan*,Parveen Sankhyan**and Suresh Kumar***

Edible vegetable oils are the chief source of nutritionally required fatty acids in human diet. Mustard oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, coconut oil and groundnut oil are among the edible vegetable oils mostly consumed in India.However, none of these oils alone provide many of the lipid soluble nutrients as per the recommendation of health agencies.Mustard oilis considered to be an oil that has low saturated fatas compared to other cookingoils.It is basically consist of oleic acid, erucic acid and linoleic acid. It is also loaded with essentialvitamins.Mammalian cells have evolved to de-saturate and elongate α-linolenic acid (ALNA), an omega-3 fatty acid, into eicosapentanoic acid (ω-3) and the longer docosahexanoic acid (ω-3) when the ω-6/ω-3 ratio is low. Excess ω-6 fatty acids in diet saturate the enzymes and prevent the conversion of ALNA into longer forms. The optimal ω6/ω-3ratios that have been estimated to be 2:1 to 3:1 are about four times lower than the current intake. Health agencies, therefore, recommend that human diet should contain more ω-3 fatty acids. Further, studies on the fatty acid composition of oils claiminghealth benefits have shown that these oils contain lower amount of saturated fatty acids as compared to theunsaturated fatty acids.In the presentstudy, the samples were analyzed for fatty acids, free fatty acids,andperoxide value, iodine number, saponification numberwere determined according to the standard procedures.


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