Commentary - (2021) Volume 9, Issue 3

Eutrophication and its Impact

Payam Behzadi*
*Correspondence: Payam Behzadi, Microbiology Department, Islamic Azad University, Iran, Email:

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Eutrophication is termed as gradual increase of p hosphorous, nitrogen and other organic substances in the aquatic ecosystem like a lake. Eutrophication usually increases the fertility of this ecosystem which results in sudden algal bloom in the ecosystem. This material enters the ecosystem either from ag ricultu r al runoff and dead remains of living organisms. As the water source become nutrient rich the concentration of algae and microorganisms develop on the surface of the water body. It may sound positive as algae develop at faster rate but in fact it ch okes the life of other living organisms present in the water body. The developed algae cover the su r- face preventing sunlight and oxygen supply to the life underwater. Eutrophic waters are murkier and contain less life than a non eutrophic water body. Anoth er kind of eutrophication which includes human inte r- vention is known as cultural eutrophication in which the process of contamination increases by the intr o- duction of sewage, detergents and mainly fertilizers. This kind of eutrophication has adverse conseq uences on freshwater resources, fisheries and other recre a- tional places of waterbodies. Eutrophication is not limited to stagnant water bodies only but has equal contribution to the coastal waterbodies too, but unlike stagnant water sources eutrophication in marine w a- ters is dominated by excess nitrogen content, thus knowing nitrogen content is an important factor in saltwater body. Eutrophication in marine waters can lead to hypoxia/anoxia which kills fish which play an important role in the ecosystem. Ter restrial ecosy s- tems have similar impacts from ecosystem. Other impact of eutrophication leads to competitive release which attracts invasive species from other ecosy s tem subduing the natural species of that ecosystem leading to their extinction. Eutrophica tion not only causes problem to the ecosystem but to humans as well for which a prevention and reversal system is needed.

Measures to prevent eutrophication include minimi z- ing point source pollution from the sewage under this measure rivers and lakes are t argeted which act as dumping places for industrial and municipal dischar g- es. Raw sewage being the point source pollutant must be treated in a proper manner. Upgrading of sewage treatment plants and passing the raw sewage through secondary treatment plant m ight be promising in mit i- gating the problem to some extent. However it is i m- possible to completely eliminate the nutrient rich source and could be controlled with the su p port of stringent law regulations. Controlling of agricultural wastes could be simulta neously adhered with ce r tain simple precautions like using right quantity fertilizers at the appropriate time of the year with correct appl i- cation method. Covering the ground with crops throughout the year prevents erosion. Planting plant buffers in the ag ricultural field and practicing conse r- vation tillage which reduces the number of times the ground is tilled which enhances the chance for the nutrients to be absorbed into the ground. Geo engineering is another form of artificial manipulation as a process of biogeochemical techniques. It is pra c- ticed mainly in ecosystems where the phosphorous content is high thus phosphate sorbent materials like alum and aluminum sulphate are used which consi d- erably reduce the phosphorous content in the water body which red uces the advance of algal growth in the water body. Geo engineering thus helps i n the control of algal bloom.



Conflict of Interest

The author states there is no conflict of interest.

Author Info

Payam Behzadi*
Microbiology Department, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Received: 03-Dec-2021 Accepted: 17-Dec-2021 Published: 25-Dec-2021

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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